Courses by Term

Media Studies Courses by Term

In each term and curricula section, you will find the courses that satisfy major course requirements, including prerequisites. These lists are created after the Schedule of Classes has been published for the term and before students start enrolling. Keep in mind that the Schedule of Classes is subject to change. If you notice anything that needs to be removed or added to these lists, please let us know by sending an email to mediastudies_advising@berkeley.edu.

Visit the following pages on the Media Studies website when planning your future courses:

Prerequisite Courses

I. American History (Post-Civil War period)

  • History 7B: Introduction to History of the U.S.–Civil War to Present
  • History 131B: Social History of the U.S.: Creating Modern American Society: From the end of the Civil War

II. American Institutions

  • Political Science 1: Introduction to American Politics

III. Introductory Social Sciences and Humanities

  • Anthropology 3AC: Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology
  • Comparative Literature 20: Episodes in Literary Cultures: Literature and Philosophy
  • Economics 1: Introduction to Economics
  • Psychology 1 or W1: General Psychology
  • Psychology 2: Principles of Psychology
  • Rhetoric 10: Introduction to Practical Reasoning and Critical Analysis of Argument
  • Sociology 1: Introduction to Sociology
  • Sociology 3AC: Principles of Sociology

IV. Introductory Media Studies

  • Media Studies W10: Introduction to Media Studies

Core Courses

  • Media Studies 111C: Audio-Visual Media History
  • Media Studies 112: Media Theories and Processes
  • Media Studies 113: Media and Democracy
  • Media Studies 114: Media and Globalization

DS.1 Research Methodologies Electives

  • Art Practice 178: Advanced Digital Media: Game Design Methods
  • Data Science C8: Foundations of Data Science
  • Media Studies 132: Researching Digital Media: Methods and Methodologies
  • Statistics C8: Foundations of Data Science
  • Statistics 20: Introduction to Probability and Statistics

DS.2 Virtual Communities and Social Media Electives

  • History 182A: Science, Technology, and Society
  • Information 103: History of Information
  • Interdisciplinary Studies Field Major 100J: The Social Life of Computing
  • Media Studies 168: Cybernetics and Cybercultures: The Psychosocial Impact of Digital Media
  • New Media 290/002: Special Topics in New Media: Queering Digital Cultures
  • Sociology 166: Society and Technology
  • Sociology 167: Virtual Communities/Social Media

DS.3 Digital Projects and Digital Storytelling Electives

  • Art C166: Critical Practices: People, Places, Participation (cross-list: NWMEDIA C166)
  • Film and Media 155: Media Technologies: Cinema After Digitization
  • Media Studies 101: Visual Culture
  • Media Studies 190-003: Special Topics in Media Studies: Digital Storytelling: Crisis, Catastrophe and Speculative Futures
  • New Media C166: Critical Practices: People, Places, Participation (cross-list: ART C166)
  • New Media 201: Questioning New Media
  • New Media C265: Interface Aesthetics
  • New Media 204: Critical Practices: People, Places, Participation
  • New Media 205: Locative Media
  • New Media C262: Tangible User Interfaces
  • New Media C263: Technologies for Creativity and Learning

Additional Electives

See Digital Studies, Global Cultural Studies, and Media Law & Policy upper-division electives when selecting two additional upper-division electives from any concentration for the major.

Prerequisite Courses

I. American History (Post-Civil War period)

  • History 7B: Introduction to History of the U.S.–Civil War to Present
  • History 131B: Social History of the U.S.: Creating Modern American Society: From the end of the Civil War

II. American Institutions

  • Political Science 1: Introduction to American Politics

III. Introductory Social Sciences and Humanities

  • Anthropology 3AC: Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology
  • Comparative Literature 20: Episodes in Literary Cultures: Literature and Philosophy
  • Economics 1: Introduction to Economics
  • Psychology 1 or W1: General Psychology
  • Psychology 2: Principles of Psychology
  • Rhetoric 10: Introduction to Practical Reasoning and Critical Analysis of Argument
  • Sociology 1: Introduction to Sociology
  • Sociology 3AC: Principles of Sociology

IV. Introductory Media Studies

  • Media Studies W10: Introduction to Media Studies

Core Courses

  • Media Studies 111C: Audio-Visual Media History
  • Media Studies 112: Media Theories and Processes
  • Media Studies 113: Media and Democracy
  • Media Studies 114: Media and Globalization

GCS.1 Research Methodologies Electives

  • Gender and Women Studies 101: Doing Feminist Research
  • Global Studies 102: Critical Thinking In Global Studies

GCS.2 Visual Culture Electives

  • Asian American Studies 171: Asian Americans in Film and Video
  • Chinese 172: Contemporary Chinese Language Cinema
  • East Asian Languages and Cultures 181: East Asian Film: Special Topics in Genre
  • Ethnic Studies 122AC: Ethnicity and Race in Contemporary American Films
  • Film and Media 125: Documentary Forms
  • Film and Media 145: Global Media
  • Film and Media 170: Special Topics in Film (Topic TBA)
  • Film and Media 171: Special Topics in Film Genre: Bloodsuckers, Aesthetes, and Queers: Tracking the Vampire Genre
  • Film and Media 172: Auteur Theory (all topics)
  • Global Studies 100S: Global Societies and Cultures
  • Korean 188: Cold War Culture in Korea: Literature and Film
  • Media Studies 101: Visual Culture
  • Rhetoric 145: Science, Narrative, and Image

GCS.3 Popular Culture Electives

  • American Studies 101: Examining US Cultures in Time: Dust and Chrome: America and the 1930s
  • American Studies 101: Examining US Cultures in Time: Speed in American Culture
  • Asian American Studies 132AC: Islamophobia and Constructing Otherness
  • Asian American Studies 138: Topics in Asian Popular Culture (all topics)
  • English 176: Literature and Popular Culture 
  • Japanese 178:The Politics of Japanese Culture from the Bubble to the Present
  • Korean 109: Korean Language in Popular Media
  • Media Studies 190-001: Special Topics in Media Studies: Beauty, Gender and Race in Global Popular Culture
  • Sociology 163: Popular Culture

Additional Electives

See Digital Studies, Global Cultural Studies, and Media Law & Policy upper-division electives when selecting two additional upper-division electives from any concentration for the major.

Prerequisite Courses

I. American History (Post-Civil War period)

  • History 7B: Introduction to History of the U.S.–Civil War to Present
  • History 131B: Social History of the U.S.: Creating Modern American Society: From the end of the Civil War

II. American Institutions

  • Political Science 1: Introduction to American Politics

III. Introductory Social Sciences and Humanities

  • Anthropology 3AC: Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology
  • Comparative Literature 20: Episodes in Literary Cultures: Literature and Philosophy
  • Economics 1: Introduction to Economics
  • Psychology 1 or W1: General Psychology
  • Psychology 2: Principles of Psychology
  • Rhetoric 10: Introduction to Practical Reasoning and Critical Analysis of Argument
  • Sociology 1: Introduction to Sociology
  • Sociology 3AC: Principles of Sociology

IV. Introductory Media Studies

  • Media Studies W10: Introduction to Media Studies

Core Courses

  • Media Studies 111C: Audio-Visual Media History
  • Media Studies 112: Media Theories and Processes
  • Media Studies 113: Media and Democracy
  • Media Studies 114: Media and Globalization

MLP.1 Research Methodologies Electives

  • Political Science 3: Empirical Analysis and Quantitative Methods
  • Public Policy 101: Introduction to Public Policy Analysis
  • Sociology 5: Evaluation of Evidence

MLP.2 Institutions Electives

  • African American Studies 134/C134: Information Technology and Society
  • American Studies C172: History of American Business (cross-list: UGBA C172)
  • German 160B: Politics and Culture in 20th Century Germany: Fascism and Propaganda
  • Information 134: Information Technology Economics, Strategy, and Policy
  • Political Science 106A: Campaign Strategy: Media and Message
  • Sociology 110: Organizations and Social Institutions
  • Sociology 117: Sport as a Social Institution
  • Undergraduate Business Administration 106: Marketing
  • Undergraduate Business Administration 160: Consumer Insight
  • Undergraduate Business Administration: History of American Business (cross-list: AMERSTD C172)

MLP.3 Citizenship Electives

  • Asian American Studies 132AC: Islamophobia and Constructing Otherness
  • Letters and Science C180U: Wealth and Poverty (cross-list: PUBPOL C103)
  • Public Policy C103: Wealth and Poverty (cross-list: LS C180U)
  • Sociology 140: Politics and Social Change
  • Sociology 145: Social Change

Additional Electives

See Digital Studies, Global Cultural Studies, and Media Law & Policy upper-division electives when selecting two additional upper-division electives from any concentration for the major.

Prerequisite Courses

The last opportunity to apply to Media Studies and follow the Declared Fall 2018 to Summer 2021 Requirements was Summer 2021. See Applying: Overview and Prerequisites.

Research Methods Courses

  • Political Science 3: Introduction to Empirical Analysis & Quantitative Methods
  • Sociology 5: Evaluation of Evidence
  • Media Studies 132: Researching Digital Media: Methods and Methodologies
  • Psychology 101: Research and Data Analysis in Psychology

Core Courses

  • Media Studies 111C: Audio-Visual Media History
  • Media Studies 112: Media Theories and Processes
  • Media Studies 113: Media and Democracy

Group A: History Electives

  • American Studies 101-001: Examining US Cultures in Time: Speed in American Culture
  • American Studies 101-002: Examining US Cultures in Time: Dust and Chrome: America and the 1930s
  • American Studies C172: History of American Business (cross-list: UGBA C172)
  • German 160B: Politics and Culture in 20th Century Germany: Fascism and Propaganda
  • History 182A: Science, Technology, and Society
  • Information 103: History of Information
  • Undergraduate Business Administration C172: History of American Business (cross-list: AMERSTD C172)

Group B: Specialization in a Medium Electives

  • Asian American Studies 171: Asian Americans in Film and Video
  • Chinese 172: Contemporary Chinese Language Cinema
  • East Asian Languages and Cultures 181: East Asian Film: Special Topics in Genre (Topic TBA)
  • English 176: Literature and Popular Culture
  • Ethnic Studies 122AC: Ethnicity and Race in Contemporary American Films
  • Film and Media 170: Special Topics in Film (Topic TBA)
  • Film and Media 171: Special Topics in Film Genre: Bloodsuckers, Aesthetes, and Queers: Tracking the Vampire Genre
  • Film and Media 172: Auteur Theory
  • Film and Media 145: Global Media
  • Film and Media 125: Documentary Forms
  • Interdisciplinary Studies Field Major 100J: The Social Life of Computing
  • Korean 188: Cold War Culture in Korea: Literature and Film
  • Media Studies 168: Cybernetics and Cybercultures: The Psychosocial Impact of Digital Media
  • Media Studies 190-003: Special Topics in Media Studies: Digital Storytelling: Crisis, Catastrophe and Speculative Futures
  • Native American Studies 158: Native Americans and the Cinema
  • Rhetoric 114: Rhetoric of New Media
  • Sociology 167: Virtual Communities/Social Media

Group C: Theory and Application Electives

  • Asian American Studies 132AC: Islamaphobia and Constructing Otherness
  • Asian American Studies 138: Topics in Asian Popular Culture (all topics)
  • Demography 180: Social Networks
  • Global Studies 100S: Global Societies and Cultures
  • Interdisciplinary Studies Field Major (ISF) 100C: Language and Identity
  • Japanese 178: Murakami Haruki and Miyazaki Hayao: the Politics of Japanese Culture from the Bubble to the Present
  • Korean 109: Korean Language in Popular Media
  • Letters and Science C180U: Wealth and Poverty (cross-list: PUBPOL C103)
  • Media Studies 101: Visual Culture
  • Media Studies 114: Media and Globalization
  • Media Studies 190-001: Special Topics in Media Studies: Beauty, Gender and Race in Global Popular Culture
  • Political Science 106A: American Politics: Campaign Strategy–Media
  • Public Policy C103: Wealth and Poverty (cross-list: LS C180U)
  • Rhetoric 145: Science, Narrative, and Image
  • Sociology 110: Organizations and Social Institutions
  • Sociology 117: Sport as a Social Institution
  • Sociology 133: Sociology of Gender
  • Sociology 140: Politics and Social Change
  • Sociology 145: Social Change
  • Sociology 163: Popular Culture
  • Sociology 166: Society and Technology
  • South and Southeast Asian Studies 167: Contemporary Popular Cultures of the Philippines
  • Undergraduate Business Administration 106: Marketing

Additional Electives

Students must take two additional electives from any group: Group A: History, Group B: Specialization in a Medium, and Group C: Theory and Application. See lists above.

Prerequisite Courses

I. American History (Post-Civil War period)

  • History 124B: The Recent United States: The United States from World War II

II. American Institutions

  • Political Science 1: Introduction to American Politics

III. Introductory Social Sciences and Humanities

  • Anthropology 3AC: Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology
  • Comparative Literature 20C: Episodes in Literary Cultures: Literature and History: How to Lead a Good Life: Ancient and Modern Answers
  • Economics 1: Introduction to Economics
  • Economics 1: Introduction to Economics–Lecture Format
  • Psychology 1: General Psychology
  • Psychology W1: General Psychology
  • Psychology 2: Principles of Psychology
  • Rhetoric 20: Rhetorical Interpretation
  • Sociology 1: Introduction to Sociology
  • Sociology 3AC: Principles of Sociology
  • Theater 26: Introduction to Performance Studies

IV. Introductory Media Studies

  • Media Studies W10-001: Introduction to Media Studies

Core Courses

  • Media Studies 111B: Text and Data Media History
  • Media Studies 112: Media Theories and Processes

DS.1 Research Methodologies Electives

  • Computer Science C8: Foundations of Data Science – Internet/Online (cross-list DATA C8, INFO C8 and STAT C8)
  • Computer Science C8: Foundations of Data Science (cross-list DATA C8, INFO C8 and STAT C8)
  • Data Science C8: Foundations of Data Science – Internet/Online (cross-list COMPSCI C8, INFO C8 and STAT C8)
  • Data Science C8: Foundations of Data Science (cross-list COMPSCI C8, INFO C8 and STAT C8)
  • Demography 180: Social Networks
  • Information C8: Foundations of Data Science– Internet/Online (cross-list COMPSCI C8, DATA C8 and STAT C8)
  • Information C8: Foundations of Data Science (cross-list COMPSCI C8, DATA C8 and STAT C8)
  • Scandinavian 127: Social Network Analysis and the Icelandic Family Saga
  • Statistics C8: Foundations of Data Science – Internet/Online (cross-list COMPSCI C8, DATA C8 and INFO C8)
  • Statistics C8: Foundations of Data Science (cross-list COMPSCI C8, DATA C8 and INFO C8)
  • Statistics 20: Introduction to Probability and Statistics – Internet/Online
  • Statistics 20: Introduction to Probability and Statistics

DS.2 Virtual Communities and Social Media Electives

  • African American Studies 134: Information, Technology, and Society
  • Media Studies 104E: History and Development of Online News
  • Media Studies 190: Special Topics in Media Studies: A Guide to Your Self: Media, Personality, and Identity as History and Theory
  • Sociology 167: Virtual Communities/Social Media

DS.3 Digital Projects and Digital Storytelling Electives

  • Media Studies 190-003: Special Topics in Media Studies: Video Games and Playful Media
  • New Media 200: History and Theory of New Media
  • New Media C262: Theory and Practice of Tangible User Interfaces

Additional Electives

See Digital Studies, Global Cultural Studies, and Media Law & Policy upper-division electives when selecting two additional upper-division electives from any concentration for the major.

Prerequisite Courses

I. American History (Post-Civil War period)

  • History 124B: The Recent United States: The United States from World War II

II. American Institutions

  • Political Science 1: Introduction to American Politics

III. Introductory Social Sciences and Humanities

  • Anthropology 3AC: Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology
  • Comparative Literature 20C: Episodes in Literary Cultures: Literature and History: How to Lead a Good Life: Ancient and Modern Answers
  • Economics 1: Introduction to Economics
  • Economics 1: Introduction to Economics–Lecture Format
  • Psychology 1: General Psychology
  • Psychology W1: General Psychology
  • Psychology 2: Principles of Psychology
  • Rhetoric 20: Rhetorical Interpretation
  • Sociology 1: Introduction to Sociology
  • Sociology 3AC: Principles of Sociology
  • Theater 26: Introduction to Performance Studies

IV. Introductory Media Studies

  • Media Studies W10-001: Introduction to Media Studies

Core Courses

  • Media Studies 111B: Text and Data Media History
  • Media Studies 112: Media Theories and Processes

GCS.1 Research Methodologies Electives

  • Global Studies 102: Critical Thinking In Global Studies
  • Media Studies 131: Cultural Studies Research Methodology

GCS.2 Visual Culture Electives

  • Chicano Studies 135B: Latino Narrative Film Since 1990
  • Film and Media 125: Documentary Forms: Documentary Forms & Explorations
  • Film and Media 135: Experimental and Alternative Media Art
  • Film and Media 145: Global Media
  • Film and Media 170: Special Topics in Film: Black Media and Poetics
  • Film and Media 171: Special Topics in Film Genre: Semester-specific topic TBA
  • Italian Studies 170: The Italian Cinema: History, Genres, Authors: Italian Cinema and the Ecological Imagination
  • Korean 186: Introduction to Korean Cinema
  • Korean 187: History and Memory in Korean Cinema
  • Media Studies 190-004: Special Topics in Media Studies: Reading the Media: Hip hop, K-Pop, and Soap Operas (changed 6/10/21 from GCS.3)
  • Rhetoric 137: Rhetoric of Image
  • Theater, Dance and Performance Studies 151A: Histories of Performance: Performance and Community

GCS.3 Popular Culture Electives

  • American Studies 101: Examining US Cultures in Time: Explosive Ideologies: American Culture in the Atomic Age
  • American Studies 101: Examining US Cultures in Time: Classical Music and American Mass Culture Between the World Wars
  • American Studies 102AC: Examining US Cultures in Place: Beaches in Mind: The Beach in American Culture
  • American Studies 102: Examining US Cultures in Place: The American Southwest: The Construction and Mediation of Regional Identity
  • American Studies 102: Examining US Cultures in Place: California Stories: Tourism, Labor, Theater in the Golden State (combined with THEATER 126)
  • Asian American Studies 138: Topics in Asian Popular Culture: Semester-specific Topic TBA
  • Media Studies 170: Cultural History of Advertising
  • Media Studies 190: Special Topics in Media Studies: Beauty and Fashion in the Popular Culture (changed 6/10/21 from GCS.2)
  • Sociology 160: Sociology of Culture
  • Theater 126: Performance Literatures: California Stories: Tourism, Labor, Theater in the Golden State (combined with AMERSTD 102)

Additional Electives

See Digital Studies, Global Cultural Studies, and Media Law & Policy upper-division electives when selecting two additional upper-division electives from any concentration for the major.

Prerequisite Courses

I. American History (Post-Civil War period)

  • History 124B: The Recent United States: The United States from World War II

II. American Institutions

  • Political Science 1: Introduction to American Politics

III. Introductory Social Sciences and Humanities

  • Anthropology 3AC: Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology
  • Comparative Literature 20C: Episodes in Literary Cultures: Literature and History: How to Lead a Good Life: Ancient and Modern Answers
  • Economics 1: Introduction to Economics
  • Economics 1: Introduction to Economics–Lecture Format
  • Psychology 1: General Psychology
  • Psychology W1: General Psychology
  • Psychology 2: Principles of Psychology
  • Rhetoric 20: Rhetorical Interpretation
  • Sociology 1: Introduction to Sociology
  • Sociology 3AC: Principles of Sociology
  • Theater 26: Introduction to Performance Studies

IV. Introductory Media Studies

  • Media Studies W10-001: Introduction to Media Studies

Core Courses

  • Media Studies 111B: Text and Data Media History
  • Media Studies 112: Media Theories and Processes

MLP.1 Research Methodologies Electives

  • Economics C3: Introduction to Environmental Economics and Policy (cross-listed with ENVECON C1)
  • Environmental Economics C1: Introduction to Environmental Economics and Policy (cross-listed with ECON C3)
  • Political Science 3: Introduction to Empirical Analysis & Quantitative Methods
  • Public Policy 101: Introduction to Public Policy Analysis
  • Sociology 5: Evaluation of Evidence
  • Sociology 7: The Power of Numbers: Quantitative Data in Social Sciences

MLP.2 Institutions Electives

  • Media Studies 104E-001: History and Development of Online News
  • Media Studies 180-001: Television Studies
  • Political Science 106A-001: American Politics: Campaign Strategy–Media
  • Sociology 110-001: Organizations and Social Institutions
  • Undergraduate Business Administration 106: Marketing
  • Undergraduate Business Administration 160: Consumer Insight

MLP.3 Citizenship Electives

  • Information 188-001: Behind the Data: Humans and Values
  • Interdisciplinary Studies Field Major (ISF) 100I-001: Consumer Society and Culture
  • Letters and Science C138-001: Art and Activism (cross-listed Music C138)
  • Media Studies 104D-001: Privacy in the Digital Age
  • Music C138: Art and Activism (cross-listed LS C138)
  • Sociology 141: Social Movements and Political Action

Additional Electives

See Digital Studies, Global Cultural Studies, and Media Law & Policy upper-division electives when selecting two additional upper-division electives from any concentration for the major.

Prerequisites

The last opportunity to apply to Media Studies and follow the Declared Fall 2018 to Summer 2021 Requirements was summer 2021. See Applying: Overview and Prerequisites.  

Research Methods Courses

  • Political Science 3: Introduction to Empirical Analysis & Quantitative Methods
  • Sociology 5: Evaluation of Evidence
  • Sociology 7: The Power of Numbers: Quantitative Data in Social Sciences
  • Media Studies 131: Cultural Studies Research Methodology
  • Psychology 101: Research and Data Analysis in Psychology
  • Sociology 105: Introduction to Sociological Methods

Core Courses

  • Media Studies 111B: Text and Data Media History
  • Media Studies 112: Media Theories and Processes

Group A: History Electives

  • American Studies 101: Examining US Cultures in Time: Explosive Ideologies: American Culture in the Atomic Age
  • American Studies 101: Examining US Cultures in Time: Classical Music and American Mass Culture Between the World Wars
  • Media Studies 104E: History and Development of Online News
  • Media Studies 170: Cultural History of Advertising
  • Media Studies 190: Special Topics in Media Studies: A Guide to Your Self: Media, Personality, and Identity as History and Theory (changed: now Group A)

Group B: Specialization in a Medium Electives

  • Chicano Studies 135B: Latino Narrative Film Since 1990
  • Film and Media 125: Documentary Forms: Documentary Forms & Explorations
  • Film and Media 135: Experimental and Alternative Media Art
  • Film and Media 145: Global Media
  • Film and Media 170: Special Topics in Film: Black Media and Poetics
  • Film and Media 171: Special Topics in Film Genre: Semester-specific topic TBA
  • Italian Studies 170: The Italian Cinema: History, Genres, Authors: Italian Cinema and the Ecological Imagination
  • Korean 186: Introduction to Korean Cinema
  • Korean 187: History and Memory in Korean Cinema
  • Media Studies 180: Television Studies
  • Media Studies 190: Special Topics in Media Studies: Video Games and Playful Media
  • Sociology 167: Virtual Communities/Social Media

Group C: Theory and Application Electives

  • African American Studies 134: Information Technology and Society
  • American Studies 102AC: Examining US Cultures in Place: Beaches in Mind: The Beach in American Culture
  • Anthropology 150: Utopia: Art and Power in Modern Times
  • Asian American Studies 138: Topics in Asian Popular Culture: Semester-specific Topic TBA
  • Demography 180: Social Networks
  • Global Studies 140: Topics in Global Studies and Cultures (cross-listed as Slavic 139)
  • Interdisciplinary Studies Field Major (ISF) 100I: Consumer Society and Culture
  • Letters and Science C138: Art and Activism (cross-listed as Music C138)
  • Media Studies 104D: Privacy in the Digital Age
  • Media Studies 190: Special Topics in Media Studies: Beauty and Fashion in the Popular Culture
  • Media Studies 190: Special Topics in Media Studies: Reading the Media: Hip hop, K-Pop, and Soap Operas
  • Music C138: Art and Activism
  • Political Science 106A: American Politics: Campaign Strategy–Media
  • Psychology 160: Social Psychology
  • Slavic Languages and Literatures 139: Post-Soviet Cultures
  • Sociology 110: Organizations and Social Institutions
  • Sociology 141: Social Movements and Political Action
  • Sociology 150: Social Psychology
  • Sociology 160: Sociology of Culture
  • Undergraduate Business Administration 106: Marketing 

Additional Electives

Students must take two additional electives from any group: Group A: History, Group B: Specialization in a Medium, and Group C: Theory and Application. See lists above.